Anatomically, the brain can be divided in three major parts, the cerebrum, the brain stem and the cerebellum. The cerebrum consists of the two cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex & white matter), basal ganglia and the diencephalon (thalamus & hypothalamus), each of which has higher order functions including memory, cognition, fine and gross motor control, relaying sensory information and controlling the autonomic nervous system. The brain stem contains the mesencephalon, pons and the medula oblangata controlling e.g. muscle activation as well as respiratory & cardiac processes.
The brain represents the majority of neural tissue and consists mainly of two cell types, the neurons and the glial cells. Each cell type has specific functions to maintain the the transmission of electrical signal needed for communication, the basic function of the brain tissue. While neurons are responsible for the transfer of the signal, glial cells support the structur as well as the function of the neurons.
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